Environment treaties signed by India 2020

Table of Contents

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An environment is everything that is around us, which includes both living(biotic) and nonliving(abiotic) things. It includes physical chemistry and other natural forces.

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Environment plays an important role in healthy living and the existence of life on planet earth?.
Earth is home to different living species and we all depend on the environment for water, air, food, and other needs.
A human’s entire life support system depends on the well-being of all the environmental factors.

Environment plays an important role in regulating air and climate. Therefore, it is important to save and protect our environment.

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An environmental treaty is a type of international law, an intergovernmental document intended as legally binding with a primary stated purpose of preventing and managing human impact on natural resources.
An agreement between two nations is known as a bilateral environment agreement. If the agreement is made among three and more nations, then it is called a multilateral environmental agreement (MEA).

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An environmental treaty is important because they enable countries to work together to address vital environmental issues that are global in nature, such as air pollution, climate change, protection of the ozone layer, and ocean pollution.

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◾️The Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (Paris, 1972)
◾️International Convention for the prevention of the sea by oil (1974)
◾️The Antarctic Treaty (Washington, 1959)
◾️Convention on Wetlands of international importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat ( Ramsar, 1971)
◾️Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (Washington, 1973)

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◾️A new basic framework aimed at the prevention of global warming was compiled during the twenty-first session of the United Nations Conference of Parties(COP21).
◾️Each country’s greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions cause environmental damage all over the world, and a single country’s public goods provision will benefit all countries in a non-exclusive and non-rival manner. Hence, all countries have an incentive to free-ride on other countries’ abatement efforts.
?Many argue that international environmental agreements (IEAs) can alter states’ cost-benefit analyses by providing crucial information about the costs of environmental degradation. Thereby, IEAs may help to effectively curb environmental pollution.

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◾️Paris Agreement (2016)
◾️Kigali Agreement (2016)
It is an amendment to the Montreal Protocol.
It comes into force in 2019.

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◾️Zone of Peace, freedom and Neutrality Declaration, Kuala Lumpur, 27 November 1971
◾️Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia, Bali, 24 February 1976
◾️ASEAN Declaration on the South China Sea, Manila, 22 July 1992
◾️Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Bangkok, 15 December 1997
◾️Cebu Declaration on the Acceleration of the Establishment of an ASEAN Community by 2015,11 January 2007
◾️ASEAN Declaration on Joint Action to Counterterrorism 5 November 2001; and
◾️Joint Declaration of the ASEAN Defence Ministers on Promoting Defence Cooperation for a Dynamic ASEAN Community, 25 May 2016.


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The Paris Agreement is a legally binding international treaty on climate change. It was adopted b 196 Parties at COP 21 in Paris, on 12 December 2015 and entered into force on 4 November 2016. Its goal is to limit global warming to well below 2, preferably to 1.5 degrees Celsius, compared to pre-industrial levels.
To achieve this long-term temperature goal, countries aim to reach global peaking of greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible to achieve a climate-neutral world by mid-century.
The Paris Agreement is a landmark in the multilateral climate change process because, for the first time, a binding agreement brings all nations into a common cause to undertake ambitious efforts to combat climate change and adapt to its effects.


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◾️Paris to the Kyoto protocol (an amendment to the U.N Framework Convention on Climate Change) commit to reducing their emissions of six greenhouse gases or engage in emissions trading if they maintain or increase emissions of these gases, which are linked to global warming?.
◾️The United States is not a party to this protocol, but continues to pursue reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, fund research on climate change, and promote alternative energy sources in developed and developing nations. It also leads several international partnerships, including the Asia- Pacific Partnerships on Clean Development and Climate, to address global warming.

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◼️The commitment by governments to environmental conventions and multilateral agreements that specify or imply the need for terrestrial the UN framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Convention on Biological Diversity, and the Convention to Combat Desertification.
◼️The a well-known need for information on the productivity and changes of the terrestrial biosphere to permit sustainable development and resources management.
◼️The well-established need for improved knowledge of the carbon cycle, its variability, and its likely future evolution, dictated by the desire to develop the most effective national and global politics to deal with climate variability, change, impact, and adaptation.
◼️Although the Kyoto Protocol is an important factor in the establishment of terrestrial carbon observations, the complete range of requirements is considerably more diverse, thus the terrestrial carbon observing system must respond to the broader set of requirements.

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