Table of Contents
1857 revolt Overview
Welcome back, everyone.
Today we will discuss the main topic of Modern History which is useful for UPSC and Govt Exams’ point of view “Short Note on revolt of 1857“.
Short Note on revolt of 1857:-
The revolt was between Indians and Britishers which took place in the year 1857 in North India especially. Moving back 2 centuries, Britishers actually entered India at the start of the 17th century in 1611, and in 1613 with the help of the Mughal Emperor in Surat, they established the East India Company for trading purposes.
Soon again they dominated other foreign power such as Portuguese, Dutch, French and became Supreme European outsiders in India. That brought them more close to Regional Power Mughals, Maratha, Rajput e.t.c.
Mughals vs Britishers:-
20th June 1756 was the Black day for Britishers when the Blackhole tragedy took place which brought anger in them and they started moving towards their original motto of Conquering and ruling India.
This was the start of British rule in India, soon after 7 years Battle of Buxar in the year 1764 on the Banks of the Ganges river took place Mughals were destroyed from that particular area.
Allahabad treaty in the year 1765 took place was Britisher’s true face came to know and they started dominating Indians in Financial sectors.
Meanwhile, Indians were still busy fighting with each other but thereafter Britishers started spreading their roots in total India by changing titles from governor of Bengal to the governor-general of Bengal and then Governor-General of India.
The revolt of 1857 started when in the year 1848 the dictator Lord Dalhousie was brought, who introduced the Doctrine of Lapse act, where many Kingdom was annexed.
Causes for the revolt of 1857:-
1) Doctrine of Lapse
2) Britishers from many years said to only grow cash crops(indigo) for money purpose and farmers were forcefully said to do it or they were punished.
3) Caste-based discrimination was done on a big basis as there the policy was divide and rule.
4) Many small – small rebellion was surpassed.
5) In the 1770 Bengal famine Britishers didn’t take it seriously and let farmers die.
6) Indian soldiers had less income, no promotion, bad treatment.
This brought anger between Indians and then the Current reason took place of Cow/ pig meat to be used in gun Enfield Rifle. This brought anger between many soldiers including Mangal Pandey.
Who was Mangal Pandey?
He was a young revolutionary born on 19 July 1827 from Nagwa in the Ballia district.
Soon on 8th April, he was hanged to death resulting in people angry. At the small age of 29, he led his life for the country.
So due to the sacrifice of Mangal Pandey, many other regional powers were ready to act against Britishers and sepoys too. 10 May 1857 was the date fixed and revolt started.
Royal Queen of peth, surgana from Nashik dist also participated. Under the leadership of Kajarsingh bills revolted too. Hindu Indians understood Bahadur shah could not fight against Britishers so he was just made leader and regional power took the whole war on themselves.
Leaders of Revolt of 1857:-
1)Bahadur Shah:- Delhi
2)Zhashi Rani:- Zhasi
4)Tatya Tope:- Kanpur
5)Kunwar Singh:- Bihar
6)Bahadur Kha:- Bareilly
7)Begum Hazrat:- Lucknow
Then revolt started Indians wholeheartedly fought against them with, not all but many sections of society participated in it including women but we lost.
Result of Revolt of 1857:-
Indian straight forward lost the war but we gave a spark in Indian Freedom the struggle which boosted in the 20th century later.
Why did the revolt of 1857 fail:-
1) Due to technique, technology, and military strength.
2) Many Indians didn’t support the South.
3) The tertiary sector(job sector) didn’t support revolt bcoz they were working under the British.
4) Also, some Indians had to support the Britishers due to some problems.
Rani Laxmi bai, Kunwar Singh, Ahmedullah laid their lives. Nanasaheb & Begum Hazrat took shelter in Nepal.
Bahadur Shah was imprisoned at Rangoon and Tatya Tope fought for the next 10 months but later caught after 10 months and hanged to death. Only 75% of soldiers were from Awadh.
After that Company ruled was finished and Britishers took the whole responsibility of Total India through the Govt act of 1858 and the new post-Viceory was brought Lord Canning becoming 1st Viceory of India. Also, later secretary of state was also made.
Pill Commission was appointed after revolting for army distribution and 1:2 it was distributed in English: Hindi. Roti & Lotus was a sign of Revolt.
But later after 90 years, Indians had Full Independence in part-2 revolt such as INA, Quit India, and leaders such as Bhagat Singh, Subhash Chandra Bose, Mahatma Gandhi, and many more.
This was all about Short Note on revolt of 1857, here we discussed the Europeans invasion, Battle of Plassey and Buxar, and then targeting our main point 1857 Revolt in India. Hope you understand and cleared everything.