Table of Contents
Moderate and Extremist Period
Tags: moderate period, period of moderates, the period of moderates was, extremist period
The time period was 1885 – 1905. It starts with the formation of INC in 1885 with the help of British official Lord Dufferin.
A.O.Hume was the idol figure of the Indian National Congress.
List of Moderate Leaders.
1) Dadabhai Naroji
2) Pheroz Shah Mehta
3) Surendra Banerjee
4) Subramaniyan Iyer
Dadabhai Naroji:- Called as Grand Old Man of India. He was president of the Indian National Congress in 1886, 1893, and 1906.
He wrote the books Poverty & UnBritish Rule in India and told all about Drain theory. He was the only Indian to elect in the British House of Common.
Feroz Shah Mehta:- Called as ‘Lion of Bombay‘. Started newspaper ‘Bombay Chronicle. He was president in 1890.
Surendra Banerjee:- He cracked the govt exam but was not taken in Administration. Which made him fight Britishers.
He founded Indian Association(1876) and the Indian National conference(1883) which later merged into Indian National Congress in 1886.
Also known as ‘Rastraguru’. He founded the paper ‘Bengalee’.
Subramaniyan Iyer:- He founded two newspapers. ‘The Hindu‘ (English) and Tamil newspaper(Swadesi Mitra).
These all were loyal to Britishers and believe ‘Sugar in mouth’ theory.
but the only expansion of the legislative council was done from 6-10 members to 12-16 members. Moderate got their 1st success in the Indian Council act of 1892.
In 1905, Lord Curzon separated Bengal on 20 June. It came to force 16 Oct. So 16 Oct was regarded as ‘National Mourning Day.
At that time Indian National Congress president was ‘Gopal Krishna Gokhale’. He was also the political guru of Mahatma Gandhi.
In the year 1904 Universities’ act was brought. In the year 1905 Gopal Krishna Gokhale found ‘Servants of India Society.
Bengal partition was done for:-
3) To divide Hindu- Muslim Unity.
|Moderate and Extremist Period|
Extremist Period (1905–1917)
The time period was 1905-1917).In 1906 Dadabhai Naroji’s 1st term word ‘Swaraj‘.
In 1906 Dadabhai was president. He brought a 4-point program. the 4 points were ‘Swaraj, Swadeshi, Boycott, and National Education.
Bengal partition which took place in 1905 by Lord Curzon, was stopped by Lord Harding II in 1911. At that time the president was B.N.Dhar.
Reunite of Moderate and Extremist took place in the Lucknow session in 1916. They were split long back in 1907 in Surat.
The extremist Period is known as trio ‘Lal–Bal–Pal‘.
Lokmanya tilak supported the killing of British officers. He was sent to Mandalay Jail in Myanmar for 6 years in 1908.
He then returned in 1914 and again started working against Britishers.
In 1916 with Annie besant he established the ‘Home rule Movement‘ same as Ireland and said ‘Swaraj is my Birth Right’.
In 1909 Morley-Minto Act was of separate electorate for Muslims was given and 1st to divide & rule, also direct election was started.
Lala Lajpat rai is also known as ‘King of Punjab‘ and deported from Punjab by the British.
In Lucknow’s pact reunion of Moderate & Extremists took place. The separate electorate for Muslims was accepted.
Features of Extremist:-
1) They don’t believe in British and always had an extreme portion for them
2) Lokmanya Tilak was the leader of it at starting.
Tilak also started many festivals in chronological it is Ganesh Festival, Shivjayanti.
Lokamanya Tilak newspapers were Kesari & Maratha.
Annie Beasant’s newspaper was ‘Common will‘ and ‘New India‘.
Also, she started ‘Central Hindu Collage’. India’s capital was shifted from Calcutta to Delhi in 1911.
Swadeshi Movement ( also called as Vande Mataram movement) was the main satyagraha in this phase.
Nawab ‘Salimullah’ of Dacca was stupid and supported the partition of Bengal for Muslim majority East Bengal.
Valentine Shirol describes Tilak as ‘Father of Indian Unrest‘. Famous books of Tilak:- Artic home of Vedas & Gita Rahaysa.
Lala Lajpat rai founded Home rule in the US in 1916. Extremists had the spirit of Self-reliance. Bipin Chandra pal was the leader who was converted from Moderate to Extremist.